| g§J«h | g§J«h {dH$mg | g§J«h g§JR>Z |

g§J«h

|^maVr` | A§J«oOr VWm {dXoer ^mfmE§ | Xwb©^ nwñVH$o| | {dokmZ Ed§ àm¡Úmo[JH$s | ^maVr` gaH$mar àboI |

|{dXoer gaH$mar àboI | g_mMma-nÌ Ed§ Amd¥{Îm`m§ | nmÊSw>{b{n`m§ | _mZ{MÌ Ed§ _wÐU | _mB©H«$mo\$moåg© |

^maVr` ^mfmAm| H$m g§J«h

amï´>r` nwñVH$mb` ^maVr` ^mfmAm| H$s A{YH$m§e nwñVH|$ Ed§ Amd¥{Îm`m§ àmá H$aVm h¡ & `o g^r àm{á`m§ nwñVH$ Ed§ g_mMma-nÌ (bmoH$ nwñVH$mb`) àXmZ A{Y{Z`_ 1954, ( S>r.~r. EoŠQ ) Ho$ A§VJ©V amï´>r` nwñVH$mb` ^maVr` ^mfmAm| H$s A{YH$m§e nwñVH|$ Ed§ Amd¥{Îm`m§ àmá H$aVm h¡ & `o g^r àm{á`m§ nwñVH$ Ed§ g_mMma-nÌ (bmoH$ nwñVH$mb`) àXmZ A{Y{Z`_, 1954 (S>r.~r. EoŠQ>) Ho$ A§VJ©V àmá H$s OmVr h¡ & ^mfm à^mJ nR>Z-gm_{J«`mo§ H$s àm{á, g§gmYZ H$a g§~§{YV ^mfmAm| _| nmR>H$m| H$mo gwb^ H$amVr h¡ & {hÝXr, H$í_rar, n§Om~r, qgYr, VobwJy VWm CXy© ^mfm à^mJ ñd`§ AnZo nwñVH$ ^§S>maU H$m aI-aImd H$aVm h¡ & AÝ` ^mfmAm| H$s nwñVH|$ nwñVH$ ^§S>maU à^mJ Ûmam ^§S>m[aV H$s OmVr h¡ & ^mfm à^mJ Aën Am¡a XrK© ñVa H$r g§X^© {OkmgmAm| H m$ CÎma XoZo Ho$ {bE ^r CÎmaXm`r h¡ &

nwñVH$mb` _| Agm_r, ~§Jbm, JwOamVr, {hÝXr, H$Þ‹S , H$í_rar, _b`mb_, _amR>r, C{‹S>`m, n§Om~r, g§ñH¥$V, qgYr, V{_b, VobwJw VWm CXy© Ho$ n¥WH$ ^maVr` ^mfm à^mJ h¡ & g§ñH¥$V ^mfm àm^mJ _| nm{b VWm àmH¥$V H$s nwñVH$ ^r g§H${bV H$s OmVr h¢ & S>r.~r. EoŠQ> Ho$ A§VJ©V ^maV _| àH$m{eV A§J«oOr nwñVH|$ ^r g§H${bV H$s OmVr h¢ &

Agm_r ^mfm g§J«h

1963 0 _| Agm_r nwñVH$mo§ Ho$ g§J«hm| Ed§ g§gmYZ Ho$ {bE amï´>r` nwñVH$mb` _| EH$ n¥WH$ à^mJ H$s ñWmnZm H$r JB©& dV©_mZ _| Bg à^mJ _| 12,000 nwñVH|$ h¢Ÿ& BZ g§J«hmo _| 1840 VWm 1900 Ho$ Hw$N> àH$meZ h¢ & Hw$N> _hËdnyU© àH$meZ h¢ … AmZ§Xam_ S>obo{H$`mb \y$H$Z H$s Ag{_`m bama {_Ìm ( 1849), Y_}ída Jmoñdm_r H$s bma~moY ì`mH$aU (1884), àmH¥$V ^yJmob bå~moXa XÎm (1884) VWm e§H$aXod Ho$ H$sÎm©Z H$m Hw$N> I§S>, AZ{H$`mZ§V Am{X ^r Bg à^mJ _| CnbãY h¢Ÿ& Aê$UmoX` n{ÌH$m Ho$ I§S> (1846 -1853, 1856 -1858) ^r BZ g§H$bZmo _| CnbãY h¡ &

 

Aê$UmoX` n{ÌH$m

~§Jbm ^mfm g§J«h

nwñVH$mb` Ho$ ~§Jbm g§J«h _| 85,000 nwñVHo$ h¡§ & Bg g§J«h _| H$m\$s Xwb©^ VWm H$s_Vr nwñVH$m| Ho$ gmW-gmW 18 dt eXr Ho$ A§{V_ {V_mhr _| àH$m{eV nÌ-n{ÌH$mE§ h¢ & àmMrZ ~§Jbm ZmQ>H$ VWm CnÝ`mg BgHo$ g§J«h H$s EH$ AÀN>r PbH$ h¡ & BgHo$ g§J«h _| H$B© Xwb©^ gm_{J«`m± h¢ {Og_| eaV MÝÐ MQ>²Q>monmÜ`m`, {d^y{V ^yfU ~§ÕmonmÜ`m`, OrdZmZ§X Xmg VWm {dîUw Xo H$r nmÊSw>{b{n`m± h¢, ZoVmOr gw^mf MÝÐ ~mog H$m AnZo ^VrOo lr AemoH$ ZmW ~mog H$m 154 nÌ VWm eaV MÝÐ ~mog H$o nÌ Bg g§J«h _| CnbãY h¡o & g§J«h _| a{dÝÐZmW Q>¡Jmoa Ho$ Hw$N> àma§{^H$ H$m`m| H$mo N>mo‹S>H$a gånyU© l§¥IbmE§ CnbãY h¢ &


Bg g§J«h _| Hw$N> Xwb©^ VWm _hËdnyU© H$m`© h¢ … ZoWm{Z`mb ~«mgo H$m ~§Jbm ^mfm ì`mH$aU
(1778) Omo ~§Jbm _| _w{ÐV g~go nwamZr nwñVH|$ h¡§ & hoZar \$moañQ>ma H$m Xmo ^mJ _| eãXmdbr, A§J«oOr Am¡a ~§Jbm (1799), {d{b`_ H¡$ar H$m g§dmX, ~§Jmbr ^mfm ( 1801) H$mo gwgmÜ` go g§~§{YV g§J«hU am_ ~gw H$m amXm àVmVm{XË` M[aÌ .....(1801), H$s{V©dmg nm§S>m| H$r n«H$meZ am_ Xmg Ûmam AZy{XV _hm^maV (1802) M§S>r MaU _w§er H$m VmoVm B{Vhmg (1805), O` Zmam`U Ymofmb H$m lr H$ê$Um{ZYmZ{dbmg (1814),~§Jbm ^mfm H$m {d{b`_ H¡$ar H$m eãXH$moe {OgHo$ eãXm| H$mo CZHo$ _yb VWm {d{dY AWm} _| ImoOm h¡ , H$m -- 2 I§S> ( 1815-1825)& Bg g§J«h _| ~§Jbm Amd¥{Îm`m| Ho$ 400 erf©H$ h¢ {Og_| 19 dt eVmãXr Ho$ H$m\$s Xwb©^ Amd¥{V`m§ gpå_{bV h¢ & àW_ ~§Jbm _m{gH$ {XJXe©Z (1818) VWm g_mMma Xn©U (1831) -- H$m àW_ ~§Jbm gmám{hH$ H$m àW_ A§H$ BgHo$ g§J«h _| XoIm Om gH$Vm h¡ &

nwñVH$mb` Ûmam ~§Jbm nwñVH$m| Ho$ Mma I§S>m| H$m H¡$Q>bm±J àH$m{eV {H$`m J`m h¢ &

 

~§Jbm ì`mH$aU nwñVH$(1778) ZoWm{Z`mb ~«mgo Ûmam

JwOamVr ^mfm g§J«h

nwñVH$mb` _| 37,000 JwOamVr nwñVHo$ h¡o & Bg g§J«h _| 1900 0 Ho$ nhbo Ho$ àH$m{eV bJ^J 1100 Xwb©^ JwOamVr erf©H$ h¢ & BgHo$ g§J«h _| 1936 go 1956 Ad{Y H$r H$mZy XogmB© Ûmam àH$m{eV noqQ>J Ho$ 30 àmMrZ O¡Z {_{Z`oMa noqQ>J H$m lr O¡Z {MÌ nVdmbr H$m {\$a go V¡`ma {H$`m J`m H$m\$s AÀN>m n|qQ>J g§J«h , lr O¡Z {MÌ nVdmbr VWm gmam ^mB© Zdm~ Ûmam g§nm{XV AÝ` _wë`dmZ nwñVH|$ h¡ § & _Ü`H$mbrZ JwOamVr H${d`m| Ho$ H${dVmË_H$ H$m`© O¡go Za{gÝh _ohVm , _ram~mB© , ào_MÝÐ VWm í`m_b ^Q²>Q> H$o à_m{UV g§ñH$aU Bg g§J«h Ho$ AÀN>o à{V{Z{YËd H$aVo h¢ &

g§J«h _| CnbìY Hw$N> Xwb©^ erf©H$ O¡go am~Q>© S´>å_moÝS>g H$m ì`mH$a{UH$ amOnÌH$ ^mJ H$m Ñï>mÝV, _amR>r Am¡a A§J«oOr ^mfmE§ (1808), ~mnyemaÌr nmS>`m am`H${d Ûmam Amogmono H$m nm¡am{UH$ H$Wm H$m AZwdmX (1818), ES>oëOr nQ>ob H$m gwaV^Ur Ëdm[aI (1890) VWm 9 I§S>m| _| O¡Z MH«$ H$m JwOamVr B§gmBŠbmonr{S>`m g§J«h CnbãY h¡ § &

{hÝXr ^mfm à^mJ

{hÝXr ^maV H$r amO^mfm h¡ & {hÝXr nwñVH$mo § H$m g§J«h {Z_m©U Bånr[a`b bm`~«oar Ho$ g_` go hr àma§^ h¡ & EH$ n¥WH$ à^mJ 1960 0 _| ñWm{nV {H$`m J`m & dV©_mZ _| nwñVH$mb` g§J«h _| 80,000 {hÝXr H$r nwñVH|$ h¡ & 18 dt eVmãXr Ho$ A§{V_ XeH$ Ho$ Xm¡amZ Xwb©^ àH$meZ H$m`m} Ho$ g§J«h CnbãY h¡ § & b„ybmb, H$bH$Îmm Ho$ àW_ _wÐH$, àH$meH$ Ed§ boIH$ Ûmam H$B© àH$m{eV àH$meZ| Bg g§J«h H$s EH$ AÀN>r à{V{Z{YËd H$aVr h¡ & b„ybmb Ûmam àH$m{eV {ZåZ{b{IV Xwb©^ nwñVH$ h¡o -- ~«O ^mfm ì`mH$aU (1811), bVr\o {hÝXr (1821) VWm amOZr{V (1827), ào_ gmJa (1842).

Cn`w©º$ àH$meZmoo§ Ho$ A{V[aº$, nwñVH$mb` _| Om±Z ~r0 {JbH«$mBñQ> (1798) Ûmam àmÀ` ^mfm {dkmZ _| àgma g§~§{YV A§J«oOr Am¡a {hÝXwñVmZr VWm {hÝXwñVmZr Am¡a A§J«oOr eãXmdbr (1798), Om±Z ~r0 {JbH«$mBñQ> H$m {hÝXr-amo_Z H$m _yb ewÕmoƒmaU (1804), Zam`U n§pS>V Ûmam amO{Z{V (1809), hmbYmam Xmg Ûmam gwXm_m {MÌ (1819), amJ H$mbnmÐþ_ (1843), S>§H$Z \$moãg© H$m ~¡Vmb nMrgr (1861), Q>r0 Q>r0 WmångZ H$m {hÝXr Am¡a A§J«oOr H$m eãXH$moe (1862), hyna {d{b`_ H$m `dZ ^mfm H$m ì`mH$aU (1874), {ed {gåhm goZmJa H$m {ed {gåhm gamoO (1878), ~mbH¥$îU ^Q²>Q> Ûmam g§nm{XV {hÝXr àXrn (1877-1909), {hÝXr _| gy`© nÕ{V H$m g§{já boIm (1940), VWm "~mb ~mo{YZr' H$m _mB©H«$mo{\$ë_ à{V (1874 -1877)-- ^maVoÝXw h[aíMÝÐ Ûmam g§nm{XV _{hbm H$s _m{gH$ n{ÌH$m CnbãY h¡ & BgHo$ g§J«h _| bJ^J 1200 _hËdnyU© n{ÌH$mAm| Ho$ àW_ A§H$ ^r h¡§ &

Bg à^mJ _| _¡{Wbr nwñVH$m| H$s ^r EH$ AÀN>r g§»`m h¢ &

 

 

 _w»` n¥ï> (Cna) Ed§ àW_ n¥ï> (ZrMo) b„wbmb ào_ go (1842)

 

H$Þ‹S> ^mfm g§J«h

amï´>r` nwñVmH$b` _| EH$ n¥WH$ H$Þ‹S> à^mJ 1963 0 _| Imobm, J`m Omo H$Þ‹S> ^mfm _| àH$m{eV nwñVH|$ VWm AÝ` gm_{J«`mo§ H$m g§J«h VWm n[aajU H$aVm h¡ &1960 0 _| nwñVH$mb` Ûmam EM0 MmZMHo$œ A`§Jma Ho$ ì`{º$JV g§J«h H$s IarX H$s JB© & Bg g§J«h _| 19 dt eVmãXr Ho$ A§{V_ Xmo XeH$m| VWm 20dt eVmãXr Ho àW_ VrZ XeH$m| Ho$ ~rM H$s eVmãXr H$s 1300 nwñVH| h¢ & H$Þ‹S> Ho$ »`m{V àmá boIH$ Or0 nr0 amOaVZ_ H$s nwñVH|$ nwñVH$mb` Ho$ H$Þ‹S> g§J«h H$s _hËdnyU© Yamoha h¡ & S>r0 ~r0 EoŠQ> bmJy hmoZo Ho$ ~mX Bg A{Y{Z`_ H r à{V OmJéH$Vm bmZo Ho$ CÔoí` go amOaVZ_ Zo _¡gya amÁ` H$m Xm¡am {H$`m & nwñVH$mb` H$s Va\$ go CÝhm|Zo bJ^J 1,500 nwñVH|$ g§J{«hV H$s Am¡a nwñVmH$b` H$mo {~Zm H$moB© ì`` H$am`o Bgo nwñVH$mb` H$mo CnbãY H$am`m & Bg nwñVmH$b` _| H$Þ‹S> g§J«h H$Zm©Q>H$ Ho$ gm§ñH¥${VH$ B{Vhmg Ho$ AÜ``Z Ho$ {bE H$m\$s bm^Xm`H$ h¡ &

dV©_mZ _o§ nwñVmH$b` _| H$Þ‹S> H$s 32,000 nwñVH|$ h¢ &

 

H$í_rar ^mfm g§J«h

H$í_rar à^mJ 1983 _| ñdV§Ì én go J{R>V hþAm & A^r nwñVmH$b` _| H$í_rar H$s 500 nwñVH| h¢ & Bg g§J«h _| Hw$N> _hËdnyU© àH$meZ| Bg àH$ma h¢ … _mohå_X `wgy\$ V|J H$m {e[aV H$bm_ (2 I§S) Jwbm_ _mohå_X a{\$H$ Ûmam g§H${bV ì`ma, Jwbm_ Z{d »`mb H$m AI Z§XZ,ZyaZm_m (ZyéÔrZ dmbr H$s n¡Jm_) VWm _mohå_X A{_Z H$m`_ Ûmam g§H${bV, \¡$Ob VWm H$í_rar H$m H¥$îU brbm &

 

_b`mb_ ^mfm g§J«h

_b`mb_ à^mJ EH$ n¥WH$ à^mJ Ho$ én _| 1963 0 _| amîQ´>r` nwñVH$mb` _| J{R>V {H$`m J`m & Cg g_` Bg à^mJ _| 5,000 nwñVH| Wt & A^r Bg g§H$bZ _| 34,500 {H$Vm~o§ h¢ & BgHo$ g§J«h _| 1791 Ho$ nhbo H$s àMrZV_ _w{ÐV nwñVH$| h¢, g|Q>_ ES>m{J`m _mbm~[aH$m _b`mb_ bmoH$mo{º$`m| H$m b¡{Q>Z AZwdmX ^r BgHo$ g§J«h _| h¡ & _b`mb_ H$s _m¡{bH$ VWm b¡{Q>Z AZwdmX XmoZm| {H$Zmao-{H$Zmao _w{ÐV h¢ & H$B© Xwb©^ VWm nwamZr nwñVH m| Ho$ A{V[aº$ {ZåZ{b{IV H$m`m| na H$s JB© gm_{J«`m§ ^r h¡§ {OZ_| … _mbm~ma ^mfm H$m amo~Q>© S®>_moÝS²>g H$m ì`mH$aU (1799), S>m0 Jw§S>mB© H$m _b`mb_ --A§J«oOr eãXH$moe (1872) na_mMH$b JmodZo{Xa¸$Z H$m dV©_mZnwñVH_² , Aßny ZoS>yZmS>r H$m H$y§XbVm VWm MmÝVy _oZZ H$m BÝXwboIm (1889) & BZHo$ A{V[aº$ BgHo$ g§J«h _| àma§{^H$ Ad{Y Ho$ H$B© à{V{ZYmVmË_H$ H$m`© AnbìY h¢ & CZ_o § Hw$N> h¢ … am_H$[aV_, (g~go àmMrZ _mZo OmZo dmbo _b`mb_ H$m`©), {ZamZ_ Ho$ H$m`© (15 dt eVmãXr Ho$ H${d), goégar H$m H¥$îUJmWm (16dr§ eVmãXr), dQ>¸$_ nÎmwH$b (CÎmar _mbm~ma H$s bmoH$e¡br Z¥Ë`), BOwQ>H$Z H$m AÜ`mË_ am_m`U, am_màmÎmw d[a`ma H$m Hy$gobdV©_, Hw§$H$Z Zm_ß`ma H$m Qy>bmob &

 

_amR>>r ^mfm g§J«h

_amR>>r à^mJ amï´>r` nwñVmH$b` _| _amR>r nwñVH m| H m§o g§J«h VWm g§gm{YV H$aZo Ho$ CÔoí` go 8900 nwñVH m| Ho$ g§J«h Ho$ gmW gZ² 1963 0 _| ñWm{nV {H$`m J`m & A^r Bg à^mJ _| 37,000 nwñVH| g§J«{hV h¢ & 1954 0 _| amï´>r` nwñVH mb` Ûmam ~§Jmb ZmJnwa aobdo B§{S>`Z B§ñQ>çyQ>, I‹S>Jnwa {Og_| _amR>r nwñVH m| H$s AÀN>r g§»`m h¡ {OgH$s IarX H$s JB© & ga OXwZmW gaH$ma g§J«h _| ^r bJ^J 350 _amR>r nwñVH| h¢ Omo _amR>m Ad{Y Ho$ B{Vhmg go g§~§{YV h¢ & Bg à^mJ _| H$B© Xwb©^ VWm nwamZo _amR>r àH$meZ| h¡§ & BZ_| Hw$N> … {d{b`_ H¡$ar H$m-_amR>m ^mfm H$m ì`mH$aU (1805) VWm _amR>m ^mfm H$m eãXH$moe (1810) , {g§hmgZ ~Îmrgr (1814), aKwOr {^Zgm{b{Zhr d§emdbr (1815), d§e H|$S>r H$m--_amR>r ^mfm H$m eãXH$moe (1824), Vd H$ama (1850), Ho$0 ^mQ>doQ>H$a H$m aobdo H$m g§{já boIm (1854), Mmëg© hþQ>Z H$m ~rOJ{UV JmWm (1856), {dîUw naewam_ n[S>§V Am¡a e§H$a nmÊSw>a§J n[S>§V g§nm{XV VwH$mam_ H$m A^ZJmN>r JmWm (1869), EM0 E0 AH$dW© g§nm{XV B{Vhmg n[a{gÕ nwéfA§M ^{ñÎm`m§M nmodS> (1891) Am{X h¢ &

 

"E gmoQ>© EH$mCÝQ> A\$ aob do' go {b`m J`m EH$ a§{JZ {MÌ (1854)

 

C{‹S>`m ^mfm g§J«h

EH$ n¥WH$ C{‹S>`m à^mJ C{‹S>`m nwñVH mo§ H$r àm{á Ed§ g§gmYZ hoVw amï´>r` nwñVH mb` _| 1973 0 _| J{R>V {H$`m J`m & Bånr[a`b bm`~«oar _| Ho$db 133 nwñVH| Wt, Omo ~mX _o§ ~‹‹T>>H$a 425 nwñVH| hmo JB© & A^r Bg à^mJ _| 19500 nwñVH| h¢ &

C{‹S>`m
g§J«h _| 1831 0 Ho$ nhbo H$s g~go nwamZr nwñVH|$ CnbãY h¡ & `h C{‹S>`m ^mfm Ho$ aod0 E_mog gwQ>moZ H$m àma§{^H$ ì`mH$aU h¡ & Hw$N> AÝ` Xwb©^ g§J«hm| _| … O`Xod H$m JrV Jmo{dÝX, Ya{ZYma Ûmam AZy{XV E_mog H$m C{‹S>`m eãXH$moe-3 I§S> (1841-1843), Y_©nwñVmH a Am{X^md (1842-1843) nwaZMÝÐ Am{X^mfm H$moe (1931-1940), JmonmbM§ÝÐ àhamO Ûmam g§H${bV C{‹S>`m ^mfm H$m eãXH$moe C„oIZr` h¡ &

 

 O`Xo~ H$m {JVJmo{^ÝX H$m _w»` nS>ð>m

 

n§Om~r ^mfm g§J«h

n§Om~r ^mfm nwñVH mo§ H$s àm{á Ed§ g§gmYZ Ho$ {bE 1974 _| EH$ n¥WH$ à^mJ H$s ñWmnZm H$s JB© & Bg g§J«h Ho$ A{YH$m§e H$m`© dV©_mZ _| hr N>no h¢ & bo{H$Z A~ ^r Hw$N> nwamZo VWm Xwb©^ n§Om~r nwñVH| BgHo$ g§J«h _| h¢ & CZ_| go Hw$N> h¢ … {d{b`_ H¡$ar H$m n§Om~r ^mfm H$m ì`mH$aU (1812), g¡_wAb ñQ>mH u H$m A§J«oOr n§Om~r eãXH$moe (1849), n§Om~ H$m ^m¡Jm{bH$ {MÌU (1850), ^mB© g§Vmof qgh H$m Jwé àVmn gyaO J«ÝWmdbr (1882) VWm JwéXmg ^mB© H$m df© (1893) &

 
 

g§ñH¥$V, nm{b Ed§ àmH¥$V ^mfm g§J«h

kmZ Ho$ g^r joÌm| _| g§ñH¥$V gm{hË` gånÞ Yamoha h¡ & g§ñH¥$V H$s nwñVH m| H$s àm{á Ed§ g§gmYZ Ho$ {bE amï´>r` nwñVH mb` _| `h EH$ n¥WH$ à^mJ H$m`© H$a ahm h¡ & dV©_mZ _| Bg à^mJ _o§ XodZmJar {b{n _| _w{ÐV g§ñH¥$V nwñVH m| H$s g§»`m 20,000 go ^r A{YH$ h¡ & àm`… g^r ^maVr` ^mfm à^mJm| _| CZH$s ^mfm {b{n _| _w{ÐV g§ñH¥$V H$m`© CnbãY h¡ & nwñVH mb` _| A§J«oOr _| VWm AÝ` {dXoer ^mfm _| _yb g§ñH¥$V {b{n g| g§H${bV `m AZy{XV H$m`© H$m EH$ g§nÞ g§J«h h¡ &

g§J«h BVZm gånÞ h¡ {H$ `h {dÛmZm| H$mo gX¡d AmH${f©V H$aVm ahm h¡ Mmho do ^maVr` hmo `m {dXoer & g§ñH¥$V Ho$ A{V[aº$, nm{b VWm àmH¥$V ^mfm H$s nwñVH| Bg à^mJ Ûmam ^r g§J«{hV VWm g§gm{YV H$s JB© h¢ & dV©_mZ _| nwñVH mb` _| nm{b H$s bJ^J 500 nwñVH| h¢ Am¡a àmH¥$V _| ^r nwñVH m| H$s g§»`m BVZr hr h¡ &

 

qgYr ^mfm g§J«h

1957 go, qgYr nwñVH| amï´>r` nwñVH mb` _| gå_m{hV H$s Om ahr h¢ & dV©_mZ _| nwñVH mb` _| qgYr nwñVH| 2,100 h¡§ & Bg g§J«h _| emh AãXwb b{V\$ H$m emh Omo agmbmo§ VWm emh Omo ímoa O¡go nwañH¥$V H$m`© ^r gpå_{bV h¡§ &

V{_b ^mfm g§J«h

V{_b à^mJ nwñVH mb` _| 1963 0 _| J{R>V {H$`m J`m & dV©_mZ _| Bg à^mJ _| 57,000 nwñVHo$ h¡ § & BZHo$ A{V[aº$ ì`ny ar{n„mB© g§J«h _| 1000 V{_b nwñVH|$ VWm 300 V{_b nmÊSw>{b{n`m h¢ & nwñVH mb` _| H$m\$s Xwb©^ VWm nwamZo V{_b H$m`© h¢ & Bg nwñVH mb` _| CnbãY g~go nwamZr V{_b nwñVH m| _| … V{_b ~mB~b (1779); OmZ ~{Z`mZ H$m nr{b{J«åg àmoJ«og H$m V{_b AZwdmX (1793); JoëS>dob H$m Ð{d‹S> ^mfm H$m VwbZmË_H$ ì`mH$aU (1850) JoëS>dob H$m Ð{d‹S> ^mfm H$m VwbZmË_H$ ì`mH$aU

 ~mB©~ob H$m V{_b AZwdmX (1723)
 

VobwJy ^mfm g§J«h

amï´>r` nwñVH mb` _| VobwJy à^mJ H$m 1963 0 _| JR>Z {H$`m J`m & BgHo$ g§J«h _| 19 dr§ eVmãXr Ho$ àW_ XeH$ H$s àH$m{eV VobwJy H$s nwamZr nwñVH m| H$r g§»`m H$m\$s AÀN>r h¡ & BgHo$ g§J«h _| VobwJy ^mfm H$s Hw$N> Xwb©^ nwñVH m| _| à_wI h¡… {d{b`_ H¡$ar H$m VobwJy ^mfm H$m ì`mH$aU (1814); gr0 nr0 ~«mCZ H$m Am¡a A§J«oOr eãXmdbr (1818); dmŠ`mdbr (1852); {~«{Q>e bm`~«oar, b§XZ _| VobwJy nwñVH mo H$m H¡$Q>bm±J (1912) Eb0 S>r0 ~Z}Q> Ûmam g§H${bV &

 
 

CX©y ^mfm g§J«h

Aa~r Am¡a n{g©`Z g§J«h H$s Vah, CX©y ^mfm g§J«h ^r Bånr[a`b bm`~«oar Ho$ {XZm| _| hr H$m\$s {dH${gV hmo MwH$m Wm & ~whma bm`~«oar, {hXm`V hþg¡Z g§J«h, OmH$m{a`m g§J«h, B_m_~mam g§J«h _| ^r Hw$N> CX©y H$s nwñVH| VWm nmÊSw>{b{n`m§ h¢ & 1968 0 _| CX©y H$m EH$ n¥WH$ à^mJ nwñVH mb` _| J{R>V {H$`m J`m & dV©_mZ _| BgH$o g§J«h _| 20,000 go ^r A{YH$ nwñVH| h¢ & CZ_| Bg g§J«h _| g~go nwamZr nwñVH m| _| h¢ … CbmIr {hÝXr `m B§{S>`Z B{WŠg (1803), _ra _mohå_X VmH$sg Hw${b`V-E-_ra (1811) &

| Amdmg | B{Vhmg | g§J«h | A§J«oOr Am¡a {dXoer g§J«h | Xwb©^ Ed§ AÝ` g§J«h|
|
g§ajU | AmYw{ZH$sH$aU | àemgZ | àH$meZ | godm Ed§ gXñ`Vm |
| àH$meH$m| Ho$ {bE | g_mMma Ed§ KQ>ZmE§ | Cn`moJr gyMZm | g§nH$© gyÌ | English Version |

gmB~a E{Z_o{Q´>Šg àmBdoQ> {b{_Q>oS>, H$mobH$mVm (H$bH$Îmm), ^maV ×mam gmBQ> {Z{_©V Ed§ EH${ÌV