| g§J«h | g§J«h {dH$mg | g§J«h g§JR>Z |

| {dkmZ Ed§ àm¡Úmo{JH$s |^maVr` gaH$mar àboI g§J«h | {dXoer gaH$mar àboI |

| g_mMma nÌ Ed§ Amd¥{V`m± | nmÊSw>{b{n`m± | _mZ{MÌ Ed§ _wÐU | _mB©H«$mo\«$åg |

Xwb©^ nwñVH|$

amï´>r` nwñVH mb` _| Xwb©^ nwñVH| VWm AÝ` nR>Z gm_{J«`m Ag§»` _mÌm _| CnbãY h¢ & àma§^ _| BÝh| AÝ` nwñVH m| Ho$ gmW ^§S>m[aV {H$`m OmVm Wm & bo{H$Z 19730 _| EH$ n¥WH$ Xwb©^ nwñVH à^mJ H$s ñWmnZm H$s JB© Vm{H$ Xwb©^ nwñVH m| na A{YH$ Ü`mZ {X`m Om gHo$ & dV©_mZ _| gZ²‹² 18600 go nyd© àH$m{eV Xwb©^ nwñVH| CnbãY h¡§ & BZ gm_{J«`m| Ho$ A{V[aº$, nwñVH mb` H$s nmÊSw>{b{n`m§ VWm _mBH« mo{\$ë_ H$mo ^r Bg à^mJ _| ^§S>m[aV {H$`m OmVm h¡ &

Bg à^mJ _| Cn`moJH$Îmm©Am| H$mo nR>Z gw{dYmE§ CnbãY h¡§ Omo BZ gm_{J«`m§ H$m AÜ``Z H$aZm MmhVo h¢ & dÎm©_mZ _|, Bg à^mJ _| 4,700 {d{Z~§Y, 3000 nmÊSw>{b{n`m§ VWm 1500 _mBH« mo{\$ë_ h¢ &
 

bm`~«oar H$m g~go nwamZr nwñVH$ (b¡{Q>Z _o)

{dkmZ Ed§ àm¡Úmo{JH$s g§J«h

nwZ… arjU g{_{V (1968) H$s g§ñVw{V Ho$ AZwgma amï´>r` nwñVH mb` _| {dkmZ Ed§ àm¡Úmo{JH$s à^mJ H$s ñWmnZm 1972 0 _| hþB© & Bg à^mJ H$m _yb H$m`© {dkmZ Ed§ àm¡Úmo{JH$s _| _hËdnyU© gm_{J«`m| H$r àm{á VWm àgma H$aZm h¡ § & dV©©_mZ _| Bg à^mJ _| bJ^J 17,000 nwñVHo$ VWm {d{Z~§Y VWm 800 dÎm©_mZ Amd¥{Îm`m| Ho$ erf©H$ h¢ & `h à^mJ Cn`moJH$Îmm© H$mo nR>Z gw{dYmE§ ^r CnbãY H$amVm h¡ & `h EH$_mÌ à^mJ h¡ Ohm§ nwñVH -^§S>ma ""AmonoZ EH$gog'' h¡ &
 

^maVr` gaH$mar àboI g§J«h

^maV gaH$ma, amÁ` gaH$mam|, g§K em{gV joÌ, gaH$mar CnH« _m|, ñdV§Ì {ZH$m`m| Ho$ g^r àH$meZ n¥WH$ ê$n go g§J«{hV, g§gm{YV VWm g§a{jV {H$`o OmVo h¢ & Bg CÔoe` Ho$ {bE EH$ n¥WH$ à^mJ 19720 _| J{R>V {H$`m J`m & nwñVH mb` H$m B©ñQ> B§pS>`m H§$nZr go dÎm©_mZ g_` VH$ H$m ^maVr` gaH$mar àboI H$m AnZm EH$ g§nÞ g§J«h h¡ & g§J«h _| J«oQ> {~«Q>oZ gaH$ma Ûmam ^maV go g§~§{YV àH$m{eV àboI _r h¢ & ~_u àboI VWm Hw$N> ES>oZ, {gbmoZ, n{g©`mZ Jë\$ nmo{b{Q>H$b aogrS>|gr H$m EH$ AÀN>m g§J«h ^r BgH$m EH$ A§J h¡ & dÎm©_mZ _| Bg à^mJ _| 4, 90,000 àboI h¡§ &
 

{dXoer gaH$mar àboI
 

amï´>r` nwñVH mb` g§`wº$ amï´> g§Y VWm BgHo$ A{^H$aUm| Ho$ {bE Yamoha nwñVH mb`m| _| go EH$ h¡ & VWm{n `y0 EZ0 Amo0 VWm BgHo$ A{^H$aUm| Ho$ g^r àH$meZ Bg nwñVH mb` Ûmam {Z…ewëH$ àmá {H$`o OmVo h¢ &`o g^r àboI n¥WH$ ê$n go g§gm{YV VWm ^§S>m[aV H$s OmVr h¡ & `h nwñVH mb` g§`wº$ amÁ` A_o[aH$m , J«oQ> {~«Q>oZ, H$ZmS>m, H$m_ZdoëW amï´> VWm `wamo[n`Z Am{W©H$ g{_{V Ho$ àH$meZm| H$mo ^r àmá H$aVm h¡ & 19dt eVmãXr Ho$ àma§^ go {~«[Q>e nm{b©`m_|Q´>r Ho$ gÌH$mbrZ g^r H$mJOmV ^r `hm§ CnbãY h¡§ &

^§S>maU à{V`m| Ho$ A{V[aº$, nwñVH mb` M`{ZV {dXoer àH$meZm| H$s ^r IarX H$a g§J«{hV H$aVm h¡ & dÎm©_mZ _| nwñVH mb` _| {dXoer gaH$mar àboIm| H$s g§»`m 400,000 h¡ &
 

g_mMma nÌ Ed§ Amd¥{V`m±

^maVr` ^mfmAmo± Ho$ g^r g_mMma nÌ Ed§ Amd¥{V`m± g§å~pÝYV ^mfm à^mJmo _| àmá Am¡a g§gm{YV H$s OmVr h¢ & bo{H$Z A§J«oOr g_mMma nÌ Ed§ Amd¥{V`m± -^maVr` Am¡a {dXoer XmoZm| n¥WH$ én go àmá Am¡a g§gm{YV H$s OmVr h¢ & n¥WH$ nÌ-n[ÌH$m à^mJ A§J«oOr g_mMma nÌ Ed§ Amd¥{V`m± H$s àm[á Am¡a g§gm{YV H$aZo Ho$ {bE CÎmaXm`r h¡ & nwñVH$mb` _| 19 dt eVmãXr Ho$ CÎmamÕ© VWm 20 dt eVmãXr Ho$ nyd©mÕ© Ho$ g_mMma nÌ Ed§ A§md¥{Îm`m| H$o gånÞ g§J«h h¡ bo{H$Z CZ_| go àm`… g^r AYyao h¡§ & Amd¥{Îm`m§, g_mMma nÌ Am¡a JOQ> Ho$ 1953 0 VH$ Ho$ H¡$Q>bm±J nwñVH$mb` _| CnbãY h¡ &
 

 

{h{H$ H$m JOoQ>

^maV H$m gd©àW_ g_mMma nÌ

nmÊSw>{b{n`m±

amï´>r` nwñVH$mb` _| {d{^Þ ^mfmAmo± H$r bJ^J 3600 Xwb©^ Am¡a Eo{Vhm{gH$ _hËd H$s nmÊSw>{b{n`m± h¢ & `o g^r nmÊSw>{b{n`m± Xwb©^ nwñVH$ ^§ÊS>ma _| AÝ` _hËdnyU© Am¡a Xwb©^ nwñVHo $ n¥WH$ ê$n go g§a{jV h¢ & EM0 0 XbmB© bm_m Ûmam ^oQ> H$r J`r H$mð> {MÌ ^r Bg g§J«h _| h¡§ &

 

 Xwb©^ nwñVH$ ^§ÊS>ma _| g§a{jV Vm‹S>-nÌ
 

_mZ{MÌ Ed§ _wÐU

nwñVH$mb` _| _mZ{MÌ H$m EH$ gånÞ g§J«h h¡ & Bg g§J«h _| 17 dt eVmãXr Ho$ ~mX Ho$ g§J«h h¢ & àmapå^H$ {XZm| (EH$ _rb Ho$ EH$ B§M, AmYo B§M VWm Mm¡WmS>© B§M H| ñHo$b) _| ^maVr` ñWbmH¥${VH$ erQ> VWm àmH¥${VH$ lmoVm|, OZg§»`m, n[adhZ VWm g§Mma nÕ{V, H¥${f CËnmXZ, dZñn{V ^y{_ VWm ^maV H$m ^y-^mJ _mZ{MÌ Bg g§J«h Ho$ _hËdnyU© A§J h¢ & dV©_mZ _| nwñVH$mb` _| 85,000 _w{ÐV _mZ{MÌ, 54 _mZ{MÌH$mar nmÊSw>{b{n`m± VWm 280 EQ>bg h¢ &
 

_mB©H«$mo[\$ë_

nwñVH$mb` _| _mB©H«$mo{\$ë_ Ho$ 500 amob VWm _mB©H«$mo{\$e 1000 h¢ & `o g^r Xwb©^ nwñVH$ ^§ÊS>ma _| g§a{jV h¢ & ^maV H$r OZJUZm (1872-1951) _mB©H«$mo{\$e _| g§J«{hV g~go _hËdnyU© Am¡a Xwb©^ àboIm| _| go EH$ h¢ &

| Amdmg | B{Vhmg | g§J«h | A§J«oOr Am¡a {dXoer g§J«h | Xwb©^ Ed§ AÝ` g§J«h |
|
g§ajU | AmYw{ZH$sH$aU | àemgZ | àH$meZ | godm Ed§ gXñ`Vm |
| àH$meH$m| Ho$ {bE | g_mMma Ed§ KQ>ZmE§ | Cn`moJr gyMZm | g§nH$© gyÌ | English Version |

gmB~a E{Z_o{Q´>Šg àmBdoQ> {b{_Q>oS>, H$mobH$mVm (H$bH$Îmm), ^maV ×mam gmBQ> {Z{_©V Ed§ EH${ÌV